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Key Difference Between The British Royal Family Weddings

While in the past a British royal wedding would happen once a decade, we’ve been fortunate enough to see two of them in the same decade due to the brothers, William and Harry. Interestingly, the two ceremonies and their run-up have shown some very interesting similarities and contrasts in how they were prepared, occurred and developed. These are events of national pride for the British, so all the stops come out when one occurs, which again has been generational for the most part. So having two in the same short time span has provided detail attention folks a smorgasbord of comparisons to work with, as well as what some of the thinking might have been in the preparations.

The Rings

For both sons of Princess Diana who have grown up in the media since an early age thanks to the popularity of their late mother, the rings chosen for their engagements were extra special. Both came from Princess Diana’s ring collection, tying their marriage and another generation to her history and past in doing so. William’s ring given to Kate Middleton produced an oval blue setting in a 12-carat ring with a perimeter of small diamonds as the accent. Harry’s ring to Meghan Markle was a modification of his mother’s ring, including two diamonds from Diana as well as new stone Harry added with an attachment to Botswana. This new stone significance noted where the couple first really attached to each other.

The Wives

Kate Middleton, hands down, is a true-blood Briton by family, lineage, name and practice. There couldn’t have been a better fit for William with regards to British aristocracy expectations, and she was a night and day difference as a partner versus the antics that happened a generation before with his uncle, Andrew. The British high society circles were no stranger to Kate; her family traveled through all the right schools and reputations due to their established wealth and connections. It was inevitable that the two would cross paths. The surprise was that they developed a relationship and connected.

Meghan Markle provided Harry a self-established wife of renown and success through her own means by acting. Already famous and rising her own entertainment star, Markle was quite adept at managing the paparazzi and acting world and stood her own in any business environment, particularly given how successful she was already. Harry found a match that married him on even terms, irrespective British norms and social rules.

Crowd Engagement

During the wedding ceremonies the wives-to-be are expected to engage with the crowd and onlookers but with a reserved perspective. Kate Middleton practiced the age-hold British practice of the stiff back, at attention sitting in the carriage, waving with a stiff hand and smiling for the cameras. Megan Markle handled the cameras and audience just fine, being a veteran in front of the camera, but she added a bit of personality, making some of her waves a bit more genuine and connected with specific onlookers she would see, particularly children.

The Father-in-Law

Prince Charles has had a long, troubled history with British weddings given his fiasco with Princess Diana and then partnering up with Camilla Parker afterwards. For years there was a lot of enmity thrown in his direction for how he was perceived to have treated Diana. However, in practice, he has been close with both his sons, and Charles was clearly present at both weddings in full military dress and uniform for his elder son, and a business suit for the younger son. Camilla was at Charles’ side for both events.

The Walk Down the Aisle

In standard British décor, Kate Middleton was walked down the aisle with her father. The classic look was traditional, historical and followed all the expected customs of British aristocracy. The classic long wedding dress train was in full display as well. Megan Markle, on the other hand, ended up walking down the aisle by herself. Her father was unable to make the even at the last moment due to sickness. To make up for the awkward exposure in front of everyone, it was Prince Charles himself who met Markle halfway down the aisle and walked her the rest of the way to Harry. In some small respects, Charles may have been trying to make up for his past doing so.

Dressed for the Wedding Reception

Megan Markle was very clearly not going to be normal British aristocracy right from the start, that was well known. The differences started to appear right after the wedding ceremony, as her choice of reception dress was very notable. Utilizing a design by Stella McCartney, Markle was dressed to the nines with a gown that hung off her neck and showed her shoulders and upper back. She was a look, and Harry was beaming. Kate Middleton, on the other hand, opted for an Alexander McQueen design with a long gown and white fur coif on the top as a mini-jacket.

The Wedding Kiss

As a symbolic end to the official wedding ceremony, the audiences around Buckingham Palace are always gifted with the proud husband kissing his new wife for the crowd. Both princes honored the Britons as such. William was in his bright red military suit and kissed the new Duchess of Cambridge on the balcony overlooking the crowds. Harry chose his uniform as a stark black style, and kissed the new Duchess of Sussex right outside of St. George’s Chapel after the ceremony ended. The crowds loved it both times.

Royal Audience Members

Kate Middleton’s parents attended both weddings, as did much of the British aristocracy and upper titled members. The first was obvious, for the wedding of their daughter, and the second was out of decorum being part of the royal family now by extension. In both cases Micheal and Carole Middleton were dressed to the nines in dashing formal wear, but Michael had made a point to wear a tophat to his daughter’s wedding when outside, and both parents were beaming during that event.

The Wedding Dress Tiaras

No wedding dress is complete without the veil and the tiara to keep it in place. Believe it or not, the veil is a historical tie back to ancient times and dress. While the west might be very separated from the Middle East, the veil is clearly a historical connection back to ancient times carried through to modernity via custom and tradition. Kate Middleton’s tiara was designed by Cartier and came from Queen Elizabeth. Meghan Markle’s tiara was also provided by the Queen, but her’s was a Bandeau design. Markle added a change and had a sapphire placed in the middle for her specific look.

Interesting Guests: The Beckhams

Soccer star David Beckham and his celebrity-singer wife Victoria (formerly Posh Spice) were in full attire at both weddings. For the first one David made a point to wear his medal while at the second it was absent. Victoria Beckham was in sleek dresses for both affairs. In making a social point during the second wedding, the couple donated their suit and dress to charity after the event to help a specific non-profit with the proceeds that would sure come from the clothes and their recent history.

The Wedding Cake

One of the big differences between the events that everyone noticed as the wedding cake style. For William and Kate’s wedding, their cake was a stacked design with a towering white set of flowering sprigs on the top. Harry and Meghan’s cake, on the other hand was broken up and displayed on multiple tiers with white roses and flowers everywhere. These cakes were common with each other in that they were extremely expensive. William and Kate’s cake cost a total of $160,000 while the same for Harry and Meghan ran a cool $75,000.

The Wedding Bouquets

From a distance, both brides’ bouquets seemed to be almost the same, but up close the differences are noticeable. Kate Middleton’s bouquet was designed independently and provided to her. Meghan Markle’s bouquet, on the other hand, included flowers chosen by Harry specifically, making hers far more personal for the event. Both bouquets were designed by professional florists and finished for the weddings with intricate details included.

The Entourage

For Kate Middleton, her wedding entourage would be none other than her sister Pippa, which was almost put into some jeopardy with some issues in the run-up to the wedding. Fortunately, it all blew over despite what some of the paparazzi were hoping for otherwise. Pippa became Kate’s maid of honor with two small wedding girls. Meghan Markle opted for four wedding girls, no maid of honor, and two page boys. A good number of Meghan’s friend attended, but none were picked for the maid of honor role. They may have all breathed a sigh of relief from the stress.

The Grooms Themselves

William was a standout in his red military uniform with a blue sash. His official rank, Colonel, was in full display, and the red symbolized the Irish Guards. This was significant since no royal family member had married with a red uniform since 1973. Prince Harry chose a very dark blue military uniform indicative of his membership in the Blues and Royals, his rank of Major was displayed, but officially he is also a Captain General in the Royal Marines. Both carry their military service beyond honorific titles; William spent years as a helicopter pilot and Harry saw action in Afghanistan.

The Mothers of the Bridges

Both mothers were subtle and muted dresses and outfits to focus the attention on their daughters being married. Carole Middleton was in a pale blue matching outfit designed by Catherine Walker. It matched her complexion perfectly as she seemed more smiles than Kate was. Doria Ragland, Meghan’s mother, showed up in an Oscar de la Rente outfit, attending solo after flying in from Los Angeles to attend. She too beamed for her daughter and the big day.

The Wedding Dress Train

Kate Middleton’s dress included a solid material long train that was reminiscent of that which Princess Diana had during her wedding. Meghan Markle’s train was extensively long as well, but hers was a sheer style that was transparent and see through to some extent, making it unique and different.

Wedding Reception Locations

The first son’s wedding reception was held at Buckingham Palace, following tradition and custom. Since the second’s son wedding did not require so much rigidity, Harry and Meghan’s reception was held at St. George’s Hall located in Windsor Castle. Notably absent was a face that had been close to Harry in prior years. Chelsy Davy attended the wedding of William and Kate but had just separated from Harry at the time. However, she did not attend the first reception and was not invited to the second one for Harry and Meghan.

The Cost of a Royal Wedding

Again, the royal weddings are major national event for the British, which also means the government hosts the cost of the weddings as well. The money comes back with tremendous revenues in broadcasting licensing and tourism, so it’s not a loss in the long run, but up front there is a serious cash flow going out the door. William and Kate’s wedding totaled $34 million. Some seven years later, Harry and Meghan’s wedding ran far more even with fewer guests, totaling a whopping $55 million.

The Queen

Queen Elizabeth II was very much enjoying the affairs and the weddings and dressed up for the occasion. In her first grandson’s wedding she wore a muted light lemon cream style outfit that was very formal and traditional. In her second grandson’s wedding, however, the Queen decided to go to town and chose a lime green outfit with a purple feather accent on the hat and her blouse. Many felt the Queen was trying something different for a change and getting over her stuffy ways for a moment.

Pippa’s Approach

For the first wedding, the eyes were all on Kate and her sister as both of them were part of the wedding train, Pippa being the maid of honor. However, for the second wedding Pippa got to be part of the formal audience instead, with less stress, and clearly enjoying herself a lot more. For the formal role, she was in a plain off-white, sleek gown so that the focus of attention was on her sister. When not managing her’s sister’s wedding train, Pippa found herself managing the two wedding girls for good measure. For the second wedding, Pippa wore a light green floral arrangement and matching hat, enjoying a Spring event in the sun. There were no children to manage and definitely no worries associated with where to stand in the right place anymore.

The Bridal Earrings

Kate Middleton’s royal earrings hung as a tear drop design that was quite noticeable. Meghan Markle chose as tighter ensemble, with her earrings worn without any dangle and far more conservative in look.

The Crowds

There was no question that William and Kate’s wedding brought out half the country. It was the crowning achievement of the royal family after years of bad press and scandal that just wouldn’t seem to go away. With a new generation led by William, the country pulled out the stoppers and had a huge bash celebrating the first prince’s wedding for their future king and queen.

Harry and Meghan’s wedding brought out a smaller crowd, but one that was still substantial around Windsor castle. The location of St. George’s Chapel limited the bigger crowds from forming as it was far more off the beaten path than Buckingham Palace. Unlike downtown London, where most of the 2,000 or so people congregated for the first wedding with flags down the main avenue, Windsor Castle did not accommodate such entrances as well. Given both crowd control, distance and security needs, the second wedding naturally made the crowds smaller, although quite a few dedicated fans still showed up and made themselves present and known in adulation of the marrying couple.

Prince Phillip

Last but not least, Prince Phillip was in attendance for both of his grandsons’ weddings. For William’s wedding Prince Phillip was in full military attire, showing off his own red Grenadier Guards uniform in full decoration. For Harry’s wedding, however, Prince Phillip was far less militaristic, wearing a dark Oxford tuxedo instead. Recent health issues likely contributed to Prince Phillip going for less of a production in his wedding attire, as time was taking a toll on the man seven years later.



Lowest 48 States See Proliferation in Bald Eagle Population

Renee Yates



The bald eagle is a symbol of independence, courage, and strength in the United States. Who’d have guessed that a bird of such importance was on the brink of extinction just a few years ago?

Bald eagles have three or four times the vision of humans. They can fly up to 35 miles per hour and dive for prey at even higher speeds.

The bald eagle’s name comes from the Old English word balde, that demonstrates white; the eagle’s white head contrasts with its dark body, giving it the appearance of being bald. In the wild, the bald eagle survives for 20 to 30 years.

According to government scientists, the volume of American bald eagles has grown exponentially by about four times the 2009 number, now at a high of over 300,000 birds currently flying over forty-eight states.

The United States Fish and Wildlife Service announced that bald eagles, a national icon that was once on the verge of extinction, have soared in recent years, with over 71,400 breeding pairs and an estimated 316,700 individual birds.

Interior Secretary Deb Haaland praised the eagle’s comeback in her first public appearance since taking office recently, noting that the magnificent bird with its white head has been deemed as sacred to Native American tribes and the country as a whole for eons.

The strong recovery of this beloved bird allows everyone to recollect the country’s collective resilience, in addition to the value of being responsible guardians of the lands and waters that unite us, said Haaland, the first Native American Cabinet secretary.

In 1963, the number of documented breeding pairs of bald eagles in the lower 48 states reached a record low of over four hundred.

The bald eagle population has continued to expand through decades of protection, including the banning of the pesticide DDT.

They have also been included on the list of endangered species in more than forty states. In 2007, the bald eagle was delisted as an at-risk or endangered species.

The bald eagle community is thriving, according to Haaland, who described the bird’s recovery as a “success story” that “testifies to the enduring value of the work of Interior Department researchers and conservationists.”

This work would not have been possible without numbers of individuals accumulating and evaluating many years of scientific data… precisely estimating the population of bald eagles in the United States.

The bald eagle’s birthday is also an excellent time to remember the Endangered Species Act, which is a critical tool in the fight to save America’s wildlife, according to Haaland. The landmark 1973 law is necessary to counter the extinction of species like the bald eagle and American bison, he says.

According to Haaland, her unit would investigate measures taken by the Trump regime to weaken core aspects of the threatened species law, reiterating a promise made by President Joe Biden.

She didn’t go into detail, but environmentalists and Democratic lawmakers have chastised the Trump administration for a number of decisions, including decreasing vital territory needed by the northern spotted owl and removing gray wolf safeguards.

The bald eagle is a raptor (bird of prey) that are located at the food chain’s helm. It captures prey by darting over broad landscape or water with its sharply curved talons. It also absorbs the dead animals’ bodies (carrion).

Eagles are carnivores (mmeat-eaters who hunt throughout the daytime (diurnal) from a high perch. Older eagles have a small range of hunters. Small bald eagles are preyed upon by owls. Fish, small rodents, snakes, as well as other birds are among their favorite foods.

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Cuban Snails Put This Island in the News Again

Kelly Taylor



Cuba is known for a lot of things after becoming famous due to its country’s revolution, the Cold War and Cuba-Missile crisis, its amazing national baseball team and the tropical location. However, snails don’t normally make the list of great things out of Cuba. However, the island is indeed home to a unique species not found anywhere else, the painted snail or Polymita. The shell produced by the snail is a vibrant color spectrum, and the snail has six different versions on the island in total.

Smuggling and Trafficking

Like many regions in Central America, Cuba has its problems with illegal wildlife trade. Due to a vibrant market of illegal buyers who want exotic animals for their private collections, the Polymita snail population has been almost decimated. They were officially in critically endangered status by any biological standard. When a photographer assigned by National Geographic magazine, Bruno D’Amicis, worked on a story about the Cuban snails, he became involved in trying to save them as well. In addition to the trade in wild animals, any kind of tropical snails were also targets for trinkets and cheap jewelry due to their colorful shells, which didn’t help matters. D’Amicis hoped the story and his efforts would educate readers otherwise.

Natural Conditions

The Polymita snails normally live along the eastern coast of Cuba, eating moss and lichen which in turn gives the animal’s shell its famous colors. In addition, because the snails are so voracious on the moss, the local trees are not overrun by the moss and lichen, which improves their health as well. Other animals benefit from the snails as well.

Warnings & Education

The Polymita snails have not gone ignored locally. Cuban biologists have been warning farmers about the endangered species regularly. The Cuban coffee industry depends on the health of its trees, and the snail contributes to that. When the farmers learned of the connection, they realized why the snail needed protection as well. Biologists in the meantime have been working actively to increase the population of the snails with supported breeding as well as helping authorities block poaching.

The big challenge is to show enough people in Cuba that the Polymita snails are worth more to the country in total alive than as trinket shells or blackmarket animal collections. With only one place on earth that they survive on, Cuba, once the snails are gone, they are truly extinct, which is a tragedy the biologists are working hard to stop.

D’Amicis and Cuban biologists have recognized the need to protect the Polymita snails as well as focused on educating as many as possible on the value of the snails. Time will tell if the efforts were in time. However, for Cuba, a tropical snail has once again put the Caribbean island in the news again, and this time for a reason the world should want to support.

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Connecting Wales: How ‘Hiraeth’ Has Become More Than an Untranslatable Word

Shannon Jackson



A glimpse of your home country. Maybe the color of its flag. A building you grew up in, a street you visited as a child. Each memory can create an instant connection with something deep in our souls. A feeling, an utterance, or the clenching of our heart can all recall days from our past. More than nostalgia, more than yearning, more than heartache, these feelings for the people of Wales have been distilled into a single phrase: hiraeth.

Not a word pulled from your favorite Lord of the Rings book, hiraeth is something much more complex, much deeper, and far more nuanced. Likened to the English reference to nostalgia, or the feelings of saudade in Portuguese, hiraeth is similar yet dissimilar to all of the feelings that we have since mentioned. For the Welsh, hiraeth is more than a phrase, more than a word, and more than a feeling.

Exploring Feelings of Hiraeth With People Who Experience It

By this point in our conversation, you are either all-in on the idea of hiraeth or you’ve simply glossed over the concept. For people who have experienced those pangs of nostalgia and golden memories of years gone by, the feeling can almost be translated. Marian Brosschot is a Welsh language officer working in the city of Trelew, Patagonia. Marian has spoken extensively on the subject of hiraeth throughout their work stating, “It’s a kind of longing for a person, place, or time that you can’t get back to… a kind of unattainable longing.”

The word hiraeth is formed out of two roots, “hir” meaning longand “aeth” meaning grief or sorrow. Due to the extensive nature of the term and how complex the feelings are that it is meant to convey, a one-to-one translation has been deemed all but impossible by Sioned Davies, a Professor Emeritus at the School of Welsh at Cardiff University. Davies would go on to explain that the depth of cultural importance was beyond the scope of a traditional translation.

The word ‘hiraeth’ isn’t something new to Wales or Welsh individuals traveling abroad. The word is connected with deep pain and is consistently found in some of the earliest poems throughout the region. Referred to as the Hen Penillion, early Welsh poems plead after their purpose by targeting ‘cruel hiraeth’ that weakens their heart, imbues them with grief, and feels them with a sense of purpose. For however dark this description sounds, poets of the age also imbued hiraeth with a sense of revival, inspired by the romantic period of Welsh culture in the 19th Century.

Hiraeth and the Importance of Back Immigration

More than just a term calling back to days of poems long gone, hiraeth is an important concept to the cultural identity of emigrants, a point emboldened by the work of Bill Jones, professor and specialist of Welsh Modern History. Jones work focuses largely on emigration throughout the 19th century, and it is through this work that hiraeth has gained some further understanding.

Through Jones work as a professor of Welsh Modern History he has uncovered emigrant guidebooks that detail their experiences of hiraeth for not just the country of Wales, but the people, places, and landscapes that they are leaving behind. Jones would use this to potentially argue for an explanation as to why Wales has such a high percentage of ‘back migration’, leading to emigrants returning from abroad for the comforts of home.

As more people learn of the importance of hiraeth, the sentiment itself is enjoying a continued revival. For readers from Wales, does hiraeth ever beckon you’?

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Local Artist From Philadelphia Sets Record For BIGGEST DRAWING in the WORLD

Kelly Taylor



Are you the kind of person that likes to doodle in your spare time? Maybe you fancy yourself an artist and have put together a few pieces for a local art show. No matter what your background or familiarity with the art world, people like Dyymond Whipper-Young deserve to get some recognition for their work. Whipper-Young is an artist and art teacher from Philadelphia who set her sights on the largest drawing in the world created by a single person. In attempting this feat, Whipper-Young would have to outdo the work of Xiamoi Italia and FRA! who landed the record on November 3rd of 2020 in Altomonte, Italy.

The Old Record: Meet Francesco Caporale

Francesco Caporale, Italy (FRA!) is a graphic designer, illustrator, and art director operating out of Milan, Italy. Born and raised in Almonte, Francesco would become inspired by the varying drawings and images uploaded to the platform, a website crafted by Xiaomi Italia. Francesco would select his favorite pieces submitted through the platform before creating a massive, sprawling image featuring his rendition.

FRA would require five days to craft his record-breaking picture, first created in the central square located in Altomonte. More than 567 square meters were brimming with imagined characters, objects, and items inspired by artists from around the world. While massive in scope, FRA!s work was not permanent as the installation was removed upon certification for its place in the record books.

Following the completion of the project, the artwork itself was donated to Altomonte the municipality to parcel out sales to support the community. Individuals interested in bringing home history can purchase a piece from Altomonte at their convenience. Additionally, Xiaomi Italia would release a commemorative series of smartphones to remember the project thanks to a built-in artistic photograph application.

Dyymond Whipper-Young Breaks the Record

Heading back across the ocean we find ourselves in Philadelphia where Dyymond Whipper-Young has begun to work on her own dream project. Whipper-Young is an art teacher from Philadelphia who was inspired by the works of FRA! The 24-year-old art teacher knew that there was a ton of work ahead of her, but she was driven by her passion and love for the work. Whipper-Young stated in a video that was released to the press, “The purpose is to inspire people to find their own creative pulse.” Whipper-Young would go on to detail how creativity is imbued ‘in all of us’ and that the exhibition was her outlet and her way of inspiring others.

For Whipper-Young, the project would not take place within a city square like FRA, and instead, it would be installed at the Mandell Center located within The Franklin Institute in Philadelphia. Whipper-Young would settle on working with Crayola Project XL Markers to create the art piece, a job that would take more than 63 hours spread across five days of effort. The final result was an image that spanned 6,500 square feet.

Upon completion, Whipper-Young would dub the piece, “Crayola IDEAworks: The Creativity Exhibition” The CEO at The Franklin Institute was effusive in his praise of the piece as Larry Dubinski would go on to say that the goal of the institute was to ‘inspire and empower’ people of every age and from every walk of life to create and explore their curiosities. These words were echoed by Whipper-Young after her piece was unleashed at the institute. Whipper-Young would go on to say, “It has sea, it has land, it has space. You’ll really get to experience those things once you’re in IDEAworks.”

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U.K. Conservationists See Rising #s in Great Crane Project Success Story

Kevin Wells



The Cranes of Great Britain may sound like the title of a lost Sherlock Holmes novel, but we assure you that isn’t the case. Instead, cranes are large, long-necked, and long-legged birds that once happily called the United Kingdom their home. Over 400 years ago, the Cranes of the United Kingdom would go extinct as a direct result of over-hunting and habitat destruction, particularly to the wetlands of the United Kingdom.

While their extinction was on the record more than 400 years prior, careful work by conservationists along with some natural luck has led to renewed optimism for the species. One particularly large reason for hope in the Great Crane population throughout the United Kingdom can be tied directly to the work of The Great Crane Project, established in 2009 through a partnership with the Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust, Pensthrope Conservation Trust, and The RSPB.

Successes of the Great Crane Project

We can’t look directly at the work of the Great Crane Project for a complete understanding of how we’ve arrived to this point with the great cranes of Britain. The luck we mentioned above is likely due to the return of a few birds to the county of Norfolk back in 1979. This coupled with intense conservation efforts would lead to some semblance of the success we are currently experiencing.

According to a survey published in partnership with RSPB, the Wetlands Trust, and Wildfowl, more than 85% of the wild crane breeding population can be tied to protected natural reserves, places where conservationists are proud to do most of their work. Developing their efforts together, the team behind the Great Crane Project has been successful at helping rehabilitate existing habitats while developing new protected areas for the birds to call home.

Originally traced back to the Middle Ages, the cranes of Britain had been gone for quite some time. Typically associated with breeding throughout Middle-Aged Europe, the history of the bird has some unique legal relevance as well. In 1533 a measure was introduced through an Act of Parliament to make the theft of a cranes’ egg a punishable offense that included a fine. More mentions of crane preservation manifested within the Household Book of the L’Estrange Family.

A Rapidly Recovering Bird

According to the most recent estimates supplied by the British Trust for Ornithology, 2017 estimates would reveal that the U.K.’s breeding population of cranes at just 10 pairs. After years of work through The Great Crane Project, that number is now up to a robust 64 pairs across the United Kingdom. In 2020, those 64 pairs would go on to produce an additional 23 chicks. Some experts in the field of conservation have argued that there are more than 200 cranes within the United Kingdom at the time of this writing. Creating a diverse and growing pool is immensely important for such an endangered animal.

While the rising numbers of the crane population are inspiring, there is still plenty of work to do for the bird to experience a full comeback. The Great Crane Project has worked extensively with what funding they’ve acquired to create ‘crane schools’ or rearing facilities throughout the U.K. One crane school was established at WWT Slimbridge to feature an acre of marshy garden purposed solely for rearing crane chicks. More than 20 cranes are raised and released every single year at the crane school, with more birds finding the same experience at Somerset.

Damon Bridge is the chairman at UK Crane Working Group and he has pointed out the resilience of the bird through its recent resurgence. Bridge would go on to argue that continued success can be found through adequate environmental protection.

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